The objective of doing a site-specific study is to establish acceleration parameters corresponding to Maximum Considered Earthquake.

The outputs are as follows:

       1. Identify seismic sources possible to generate strong ground shaking at the site;
       2. Characterize the identified earthquake sources in terms of their location and geometries,
           maximum earthquake magnitudes, and frequency of earthquake occurrence;
       3. Characterize source-to-site ground motion attenuation;
       4. Generate uniform – seismic hazard curves corresponding to 10% and 2% probabilities of
           exceedance in 50- year exposure or as specified.

GEOSEED utilizes both probabilistic and deterministic approaches in its studies.



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The need to improve the ability of an existing building to withstand seismic forces arises from evidence of damage and poor behavior during an earthquake. These improvements consist of repair, restoration and retrofitting.

Repair is typically concerned with bringing back the architectural shape of the building as well as its aesthetic features. Restoration on the other hand, is the restitution of the strength of the building. This involves structural repairs to load-bearing elements. Lastly, retrofitting is the addition of new structural elements not present during the original construction of the building. Retrofitting is necessary especially if large components of the structure have failed.

Points considered:

    • Building Rehabilitation.

    • Restoration Scheme.

    • Structural Modelling Scheme.

    • Materials Compatibility.

    • Structural Stability Check.



The objective of structural evaluation is to assess the effect of loads on an existing structure. Structural data may be obtained through observation and testing prior to structural analysis.

Points considered:

    • Actual Building Condition.

    • AS-BUILT Plans, Materials Test Results, and Specifications.

    • Testing of Materials.

    • Loading Conditions.

    • Building Code Structural Requirements.

    • Structural Dynamic Analysis to check building behaviour during earthquakes.

    • Foundation Analysis.



Structural design is the application of physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different materials and geometries. It utilizes relatively simple structural design elements to build complex structural systems integrated into the architectural design.

Points considered:

    • Architectural & Engineering Requirements.

    • Building Code Requirements.

    • Structural Design and Analysis (Elastic/Inelastic Behaviour).

    • Foundation Analysis.